New Integrated Knowledge based approachs to the protection of cultural heritage from Earthquake-induced Risk
Historical Cities

Old Akko (Aka; Acre)

Old 'Akko – Conservation, Development and Inspection

The ‘Città di Roma’ International Conservation Center in Old 'Akko, Conservation project

Conservation of the Knights Hospitaller Compound

The Rehabilitation of a Building Slated for Conservation (Building 50, Block 10)

Rehabilitation of a Residential Quarter in Old Akko

Typologies of the Residential Buildings in Old Akko

Technological and Structural Aspects in the Conservation of Old Akko

Triple Arch Window (“Trifore”) Specification
Technical Specifications for the Conservation of Built Heritage in Old ‘Akko
Maria Kazakov

Fig. 1:
The building standards that have been advanced by the Ministry of the Interior, which is responsible for planning and building in the country, are part of a knowledge base about conventional (modern) construction based on the use of concrete. These standards do not apply to historic buildings that were erected using traditional construction technology. The rehabilitation of ancient and historic buildings and their preservation have thus created a need for specifications that will serve as guidelines for the treatment of structures built in stone.
Because it is understood that modern building standards are not suitable for traditional stone construction – what’s more they are likely to cause damage to the historic buildings – the Conservation Department of the Israel Antiquities Authority, headed by architect Giora Solar and engineer Jacob Sheffer, promoted engineering-physical surveys and documentation of building elements of the structures in Old ‘Akko, with the assistance of funding allocated by Amidar Corporation. These surveys and documentation made it possible to establish a system of specifications for the traditional construction in ‘Akko.  Performing the surveys in Old ‘Akko required cooperation between the various stakeholders, among them the Israel Antiquities Authority, the city’s residents, Amidar Corporation, the Old ‘Akko Development Company,  the Israel Lands Administration and the city of ‘Akko.

Fig. 2:
In 1995, thanks to this collaboration, the Israel Antiquities Authority published the first set of technical specifications for the conservation and rehabilitation of the buildings. It is called "The Total Specification".
The aims of the specifications as defined in The Total Specification are:
1. Providing solutions for stabilizing dangerous buildings.
2. Providing engineering solutions for typical problems of buildings in Old ‘Akko.
3. Providing technological solutions for typical problems of buildings in Old ‘Akko.
4. Providing conservation guidelines for important architectural elements.
5. Providing conservation guidelines for important engineering elements of buildings in Old ‘Akko.
6. Providing various technical specifications for implemention.
7. Providing ideas for technical solutions for conservation of buildings of Old ‘Akko.
8. Providing guidance to planners, contractors and inspectors in matters regarding the conservation of buildings in Old ‘Akko.
9. Providing solutions for improving the dwellings within the framework of conserving the buildings.

Fig. 3:
10. Subsequent studies should be conducted because of the need to provide solutions that are still unavailable regarding the houses of Old ‘Akko in light of the constant changes occurring in the physical and social environment.
11. Create technical specifications that will constitute an extensive source of knowledge and guidance for local master plans and detailed plans in Old ‘Akko.
The technical specification is a professional document that is based on the knowledge the Israel Antiquities Authority has acquired over the years. The information was gathered by architects and engineers in various ways, such as surveys, documentation, planning, as well as international collaboration on conservation issues.
The Total Specification was expanded over the years and other specifications were compiled. Besides gathering information, the process of preparing the specifications included an analysis of traditional building technologies, traditional building materials and the use of them. In addition, the specifications deal with modern building additions that were attached to historic buildings and their treatment, which is subject to modern building standards.

Fig. 4:
List of Existing Specifications
1994-1995: Building stabilization specification, roofing specification, roof drainage specification, ceiling specification, door specification, window specification, balcony specification, plaster specification (revised in 2006), artistic metalwork specification, wood treatment specification, routine maintenance specification and temporary stabilization specification.
1999: Specification for stabilizing steps, grouting specification, specification for stabilizing a building that is missing a ceiling or vault and specification for stabilizing of ground floor walls that have two faces.
2000: Specification for stabilizing trifor or bifor windows (revised in 2007).
2002: Anchor specification (revised in 2007), load bearing specification and specification for single face walls.
2008: Wooden doorway specification, cantilevered balconies specification, awning specification, gutter specification, stair specification, specification for wooden ceilings, specification for sealing roofs (revised in 2012), tensile anchors specification and specification for covering interior walls with sheetrock.
2009: Iron work specification and publication of a technical document with regards to building additions.
2010: Guidelines for the application of plaster.
2012: Specification for insulation systems.

The specifications are a tool that deals with conservation. The specifications are available for review by appointment at the offices of the Israel Antiquities Authority – Conservation Administration in Old ‘Akko.
 August 2014


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